Integrity Tests

NOTE: The following are examples of some well-known tests. They are used for illustrative purposes only. This does not constitute an endorsement of any one test over another.

Integrity tests are designed to assess employees' counterproductive behavior or dishonesty such as cheating, poor performance, theft, absence, and turnover. There are two types of integrity test, overt integrity tests and covert integrity tests. Overt integrity tests assess the person's attitude toward integrity directly by asking questions like "Is it alright to steal office stationary if you know you won't get caught". Covert integrity tests do not aim at assessing honesty or integrity directly but the personality that can predict counterproductive work behaviors such as substance abuse and absenteeism.

Research has shown that integrity tests can predict both counterproductive behavior and job performance (Ashton, 1998; Ones, & Viswesvaran, 1998). There are some recent debates regarding the extent to which integrity tests can predict counterproductive work behaviors and job performance. Some researchers stated that the criterion-related validities of integrity predicting job performance and counter-productive work behaviors are .34 and .47, respectively (Ones, Viswesvaran, & Schmidt, 1993). Other researchers declared lower validities of .15 and .32 (Iddekinge, Roth, Raymark & Odle-Dusseau, 2012). Nonetheless, the consensus is still that integrity test is a valid employment selection tool.

Example: The Reid Report 29th Ed.

The Reid Report assessment is an overt integrity test, which was first developed in 1947 by John E. Reid to identify integrity. It has been widely used in job selection since 1951. Major constructs that the Reid Report measures are integrity, social behavior, substance use, and work background.

This assessment contains fifty clear-purpose items that are to be answered in a yes/no or format. Paper-and-pencil and online version are both available. It takes fifteen to twenty minutes to complete, but the test itself does not set any time limit. After the assessment is scored, a computer-generated report will be available. The report has several sections together with a profile of the candidate's scores. In the first part of the report, the integrity section tells you about the candidate's attitude toward integrity and general productivity. The second part of the report tells you about the candidate's admission of criminal acts and convictions, recent use of illegal drugs at work or outside work, as well as the candidate's work experience, attendance record, and reasons for leaving previous jobs. The report also has an overall evaluation on whether the candidate is recommended for hire with options of recommend, qualified recommend, and not recommend.


Test re-test reliability is .70 and Internal reliability is .90 (Van Hein, Kramer & Hein, 2007).


Construct validity was found to be very high. There was a high correlation between the test and the Personnel Selection Inventory (r=.89) (Townsend, Bacigalupi, Blackman, 2007). The punitive attitude and theft admissions component are closely related to the Big Five personality factors of conscientiousness and emotional stability. Criterion Validity is demonstrated by previous research, which showed that the Reid Report is valid in predicting honesty and integrity (Cunningham, Wong, & Barbee, 1994).

*For additional reliability and validity information related to each psychological test, please refer to the corresponding test user manual or independent expert reviews.